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The Bubbling Kassina is a very distinctive looking frog, with its olive-green skin colour, which can look almost gold. Populations from the Taita Hills of Kenya are covered with regular black spots, each of which has a white ring around it, while other populations have stripes on the dorsum.
The Bubbling Kassina occurs throughout almost all of sub-Saharan Africa. It is found in suitable habitats at low and high altitudes, from Senegal to Somalia and southward to South Africa, Swaziland, and Lesotho.
Amphibian defensive skin secretions are complex species-specific mixtures of biologically active molecules, including many uncharacterized peptides. Many of these peptides are post-translationally modified and amongst the modifications discovered so far on amphibian defense peptides, disulfide bonds are quite frequently encountered.
The presence of this PTM often complicates the MS-based sequencing. Here we demonstrate a method to target peptides containing inter/intra-molecular S-S bonds applying a PTM-driven differential display.
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Here at Kassina Senegalensis Toad Venom For Sale, Upon reduction of the disulfide bond both molecular mass and retention time of a peptide are altered.
Assembling the LC-MS data by plotting the m/z data against retention time generates a peptide display and overlaying peptide displays of untreated and DTT-reduced material yields a differential display.
From such an overlay, peptides originally carrying a disulfide bond are recognized due to the shift in both retention time and m/z values, whereas non-cystine containing peptides remain unaltered in the differential display.
The success of this approach is demonstrated by the visualization of the cystines-containing peptides in the skin secretion of Odorrana schmackeri, Phyllomedusa burmeisteri, Phyllomedusa rohdei, Kassina senegalensis, and Bombina variegata.
The venoms from these different species yield complicated differential displays, showing interesting peptides, allowing one to target them for more detailed structural characterization.